Ethiopia is a country situated in the North Eastern part of Africa. The country with more than 65 million people is unique among African – countries by maintaining its freedom from colonial rule. With a total 1,098,000 sq kms and surrounded by Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya and Eritrea.
Ethiopia has two main seasons, the dry season from October through May and the rainy season from June through September. In the south west, the rainy season is in April and may. Temperatures vary according to altitude, but are commonly on the mild side.
is one of the world's
countries and it
regionally and globally.
It has a very diverse
set of ecosystems
ranging from humid
forest and extensive
wetlands to the desert
of the Afar depression.
This is due to the
variation in climate,
vegetation. Ethiopia is
one of the twelve known
ancient countries for
crop plant diversities
in the world and has
valuable reserves of
crop genetic diversity,
of which 11 cultivated
crops have their centre
of diversity in the
and unique conditions in the
highlands of the country have
contributed to the presence of a
large number of endemic species. The flora of Ethiopia is very diverse with an estimated number between 6,500 and 7,000 species of higher plants, of which about 15 per cent are endemic. It has been said that Ethiopia is the fifth largest floral country in tropical Africa. The country is also rich in its faunistic diversity. The larger mammals are mainly concentrated in the south and southwest border and adjacent areas of the country. There are also plentiful plains games along the stretch of the Great Rift Valley System. Mountain massifs in the north are also home to many endemic species of mammals, particularly the Walia Ibex, Semien Fox and Gelada Baboon. About 277 species of mammals, 861 species of birds, 201 reptile species (over 87 snakes, 101 lizards and 13 species of tortoises and turtles), 145 species of freshwater fish, of which over 87 species are from Baro River and 16 from Lake Abaya, 324 butterflies and 63 species of amphibians are known from Ethiopia.
Endemic Mammals: A total of 31 species of endemic mammals are found in Ethiopia. Among these five are larger mammals (Walia Ibex Capra walle, Gelada Baboon Theropithecus gelads, Starck's Hare Lepus Starcki, Mountain Nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni and Ethiopian Red Wolf (Canis simensis) and the rest (83.9 per cent) are smaller ones including 2, 9 and 15 species of bats, insectivores and rodents, respectively.
The Globally threatened mammal species recorded from Ethiopia are: Black Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis, Grevy's Zebra Equus grevyi, African Wild Ass Equus africanus, Walia Ibex Capra walle and Ethiopian Wolf Canis simensis.
In terms of its avifauna, Ethiopia is one of the most significant countries in mainland Africa. The country's diverse habitat types definitely contribute for the tremendously diverse avifauna; over
827 endemic are recorded from Ethiopia. At present, 69 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) which are also important for large number of other taxa are identified. These include the already existing protected areas and many other additional sites.
In general, the birds of Ethiopia are grouped into three biome assemblages:
The Afro tropical Highland Biome Species: It holds about 48 species of birds including 7 endemic birds. Bale Mountains National Park is the richest site for this biome assemblage, representing over 80 per cent of the species:
The Somali-Massai Biome Species: This is the richest in its species variety and holds over 97 bird species of which 6 are endemic; and
The Sudan-Guinea Savannah Biome Species: Though the area is poorly known biologically, it holds about 16 species of birds. Gambella is the richest area for this biome.
About 214 palarearctic migrants are recorded from Ethiopia, of these a large number of them have breeding populations in the country.
Using Julian calendar by Ethiopians should be amazing for Europeans who had experienced it before four hundred years. This Julian calendar of Ethiopians divides the year in to twelve months of thirty month of "Pegume" meaning, inserted in Greek having five or six (in a leap year) days. The Ethiopian New Year commences on the tenth or eleventh of September. Ethiopian is in the GMT + 3 hours time zone.
an extremely important
part of almost all
bring God in day to day
conversation as the
Muslim do. Although the
population is split
fairly between Muslims
and Christians, it is
that has traditionally
dominated the country’s
past. It is the first
sub-Saharan country to
accept Christianity as a
state religion in the
fourth century AD.
only Armenia, even from
European country to
accept Christianity.Even for Muslims it is a land that has preserved their religion being a safe guard for the founder of the religion, Prophet Mohammed and his followers in their time of persecution.
Amharic, with its unique alphabet is the official language, although over eighty local languages are spoken. English is the second official language with French, Italian, and Arabic also widely understood.
There are no limits to the amount of foreign currency imported to Ethiopia but it must be declared on the currency declaration form obtained on arrival. Foreign currency may be exchanged only at authorized banks and hotels. The declaration form must be retained as this may be required at customs on departure credit cards are not widely accepted outside the major establishments in the cities. US Traveler Checks are recommended. The official currency is Ethiopian Birr.
Prior to entry, visitors should be in possession of valid health certificate for yellow fever. Immunization against Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus and Typhoid is recommended. Malaria precautions should be taken before visiting the lowlands. Consult your doctor.
Light cotton clothing is preferable than synthetic fibers in the warm lowlands, while in the highlands medium weight clothing with a warm jacket, sweater and gloves is appropriate. A fleece work best .A light, hooded raincoat for sudden showers and walking shoes that have a good grip on loose dint or slippery rock. The sun is very strong in high altitudes so sunscreen, sunglasses and a cape are important. It is also recommended to bring a flash light and extra batteries (useful in churches), binocular, a personal water container and medical kit that contains anti- diarrhea tablets, broad spectrum antibiotic and antiseptic cream, repellants for mosquito, fly and flea protection is useful. Battery-operated or conventional rezones are needed for visiting remote areas.
Tourist visas are issued upon arrival at Addis Ababa pole international airport for citizens of designated Countries. Visitors from countries other than to the following may obtain a visa prior to arrival by application to the nearest Ethiopian Diplomatic Mission.
Injera is a country-wide staple food served with a variety of fasting (vegetarian) and non fasting wots, or sauces. A sour pancake, injera is made with the endogenous grain teff. Deliciously prepared vegetarian dishes, raw meat, cooked meat and fish dishes are also served.Although
you can easily find a
variety of international
and other specialty
restaurants in all major
towns of Ethiopia.
It is part of your Ethiopian experience to try local dishes.
Traditional dress is commonly seen in the countryside and on festival days. However, in the towns and cities people tend to dress lightly and casually.
Some items may require export permits issued by museum authorities in Addis Ababa that must be secured prior to international departure. Clearance procedures can take a much as a day or two to complete. Our company will be happy to help with this process if time allows. Crosses are particularly scrutinized for authenticity as antiquities and caution must be taken when making these purchases, especially at destinations along the northern route from unreliable vendors.
Photographs should not be taken of military on strategic buildings or airports. It is courteous to ask permission before photographing any person or rural homestead. Commonly monetary compensation will be expected for this privilege.