The semien National Park  
  Bale Mountains National Park  
  Awash National Park  
  Mago National Park  
  Omo National park  
  Gambela National Park  
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  Meskel in Addis  
  Meskel in Axum  
  Genna (Ethiopian Christmas) in Lalibela  
  Timiket (Ethiopian Epiphany)  
  Timiket in Axum  
  Timiket in Gondar  
  Timiket in Lalibela  
  Fasika-Festivals in Lalibela  
  Fasika-Festivals in Axum  
  Fasika-Celebration in Axum  
  Hidar Zion–Celebrate St.Mary  
  Hidar Zion  
  Gishen Mariam  
  Kulubi Gabriel  
  Sheikh Hussein  
  Great Ethiopian Run  
  Travel Agency  
  1. Land
  2. Climate
  3. Flora and Fauna
  4. Time and Calendar
  5. Religion
  6. Language
  7. Best Time to Travel
  8. Currency
  9. Health Requirements
  10. What to Pack
  11. Visa and Immigration
  12. Customs at Arrival
  13. Airport Tax
  14. Food and Clothing
  15. Drinking Water
  16. Communication
  17. Souvenir Shopping
  18. Photography
  19. Accommodation
  20. Electricity and Electrical Appliances
1. Land   Top
Ethiopia is a country situated in the North Eastern part of Africa. The country with more than 65 million people is unique among African – countries by maintaining its freedom from colonial rule. With a total 1,098,000 sq kms and surrounded by Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya and Eritrea.
2. Climate   Top
Ethiopia has two main seasons, the dry season from October through May and the rainy season from June through September. In the south west, the rainy season is in April and may. Temperatures vary according to altitude, but are commonly on the mild side.
3. Flora and Fauna   Top
Ethiopia is one of the world's rich biodiversity countries and it deserves attention regionally and globally. It has a very diverse set of ecosystems ranging from humid forest and extensive wetlands to the desert of the Afar depression. This is due to the variation in climate, topography and vegetation. Ethiopia is one of the twelve known ancient countries for crop plant diversities in the world and has valuable reserves of crop genetic diversity, of which 11 cultivated crops have their centre of diversity in the country.
The extensive and unique conditions in the highlands of the country have contributed to the presence of a large number of endemic species. The flora of Ethiopia is very diverse with an estimated number between 6,500 and 7,000 species of higher plants, of which about 15 per cent are endemic. It has been said that Ethiopia is the fifth largest floral country in tropical Africa. The country is also rich in its faunistic diversity. The larger mammals are mainly concentrated in the south and southwest border and adjacent areas of the country. There are also plentiful plains games along the stretch of the Great Rift Valley System. Mountain massifs in the north are also home to many endemic species of mammals, particularly the Walia Ibex, Semien Fox and Gelada Baboon. About 277 species of mammals, 861 species of birds, 201 reptile species (over 87 snakes, 101 lizards and 13 species of tortoises and turtles), 145 species of freshwater fish, of which over 87 species are from Baro River and 16 from Lake Abaya, 324 butterflies and 63 species of amphibians are known from Ethiopia.
Endemic Mammals: A total of 31 species of endemic mammals are found in Ethiopia. Among these five are larger mammals (Walia Ibex Capra walle, Gelada Baboon Theropithecus gelads, Starck's Hare Lepus Starcki, Mountain Nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni and Ethiopian Red Wolf (Canis simensis) and the rest (83.9 per cent) are smaller ones including 2, 9 and 15 species of bats, insectivores and rodents, respectively.
The Globally threatened mammal species recorded from Ethiopia are: Black Rhinoceros Diceros bicornis, Grevy's Zebra Equus grevyi, African Wild Ass Equus africanus, Walia Ibex Capra walle and Ethiopian Wolf Canis simensis.
  Avifauna (Birds)
In terms of its avifauna, Ethiopia is one of the most significant countries in mainland Africa. The country's diverse habitat types definitely contribute for the tremendously diverse avifauna; over 827 endemic are recorded from Ethiopia. At present, 69 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) which are also important for large number of other taxa are identified. These include the already existing protected areas and many other additional sites.
In general, the birds of Ethiopia are grouped into three biome assemblages:
The Afro tropical Highland Biome Species: It holds about 48 species of birds including 7 endemic birds. Bale Mountains National Park is the richest site for this biome assemblage, representing over 80 per cent of the species:
The Somali-Massai Biome Species: This is the richest in its species variety and holds over 97 bird species of which 6 are endemic; and
The Sudan-Guinea Savannah Biome Species: Though the area is poorly known biologically, it holds about 16 species of birds. Gambella is the richest area for this biome.
About 214 palarearctic migrants are recorded from Ethiopia, of these a large number of them have breeding populations in the country.
  Endemic Birds of Ethiopia
Harwood's Francolin Francolinus harwoodi Spot-breasted Plover Vanellus melanocephalus Yellow-fronted parrot poicephalus flavifrons
Prince Ruspoli's Turaco Tauraco ruspolii Abyssinian Bush Crow Zavattariornis stresemanni White-tailed Swallow Hirundo megaensis
Salvadori's Seedeater Serinus xantholaema Abyssinian Woodpecker Dendropicos abyssinicus Degodi Lark Mirafra degodiensis
Nechisar Nightjar Capimulgus Solala Black-headed Siskin Serinus nigriceps Ankober Serin Serinus ankoberensis
Yellow-throated Serin Seriuns flavigula Abyssinian Catbird Parophasma falinieri Abyssinian Longclaw Macronyx flavicollis
Sidamo Lark Heteromirafra sidamoensis    
4. Time Zone and Calendar   Top
Using Julian calendar by Ethiopians should be amazing for Europeans who had experienced it before four hundred years. This Julian calendar of Ethiopians divides the year in to twelve months of thirty month of "Pegume" meaning, inserted in Greek having five or six (in a leap year) days. The Ethiopian New Year commences on the tenth or eleventh of September. Ethiopian is in the GMT + 3 hours time zone.
5. Religion   Top
Faith is an extremely important part of almost all Ethiopian’s life. Christian Ethiopians bring God in day to day conversation as the Muslim do. Although the population is split fairly between Muslims and Christians, it is Orthodox Christianity that has traditionally dominated the country’s past. It is the first sub-Saharan country to accept Christianity as a state religion in the fourth century AD.
It was only Armenia, even from European country to accept Christianity.Even for Muslims it is a land that has preserved their religion being a safe guard for the founder of the religion, Prophet Mohammed and his followers in their time of persecution.
6. Language   Top
Amharic, with its unique alphabet is the official language, although over eighty local languages are spoken. English is the second official language with French, Italian, and Arabic also widely understood.
Amharic English Amharic English
Tenastilign Hello Chao Good bye
Sintino? How much is it? Efellegalow I want
Widdino It is expensive! Tiru no It’s good
Tiru aydellem It’s not good. Alfellegum I don’t want
Ishi OK Aydellem No
Awo Yes Leselassa Soft Drink
Amboha Mineral Water Birra Beer
Wiha Water Buna Coffee
Shai Tea Tela Local beer
Tej Honey wine Injera Bread-like pancake
Wot Sauce Kitfo Raw meat
Na! Come Hid! Go
Amesegenalo Thank you Yekirta Excuse me
Beka Enough Bewhala Later
Chiger yellem No problem Simeh man no? What’s your name?(to a male)
Simesh man no? What’s your name?(to a female) Shintibait Toilet
Konjo Beautiful    
7. Best Time to Travel   Top
Travel in Ethiopia is most recommended from mid October- mid June, which is dry season and has an advantage for admiring one of those major colorful celebrations.
8. Currencies   Top
There are no limits to the amount of foreign currency imported to Ethiopia but it must be declared on the currency declaration form obtained on arrival. Foreign currency may be exchanged only at authorized banks and hotels. The declaration form must be retained as this may be required at customs on departure credit cards are not widely accepted outside the major establishments in the cities. US Traveler Checks are recommended. The official currency is Ethiopian Birr.
9. Health requirements   Top
Prior to entry, visitors should be in possession of valid health certificate for yellow fever. Immunization against Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus and Typhoid is recommended. Malaria precautions should be taken before visiting the lowlands. Consult your doctor.
10. What to pack   Top
Light cotton clothing is preferable than synthetic fibers in the warm lowlands, while in the highlands medium weight clothing with a warm jacket, sweater and gloves is appropriate. A fleece work best .A light, hooded raincoat for sudden showers and walking shoes that have a good grip on loose dint or slippery rock. The sun is very strong in high altitudes so sunscreen, sunglasses and a cape are important. It is also recommended to bring a flash light and extra batteries (useful in churches), binocular, a personal water container and medical kit that contains anti- diarrhea tablets, broad spectrum antibiotic and antiseptic cream, repellants for mosquito, fly and flea protection is useful. Battery-operated or conventional rezones are needed for visiting remote areas.
11. Visa and Immigration   Top
Tourist visas are issued upon arrival at Addis Ababa pole international airport for citizens of designated Countries. Visitors from countries other than to the following may obtain a visa prior to arrival by application to the nearest Ethiopian Diplomatic Mission.
Argentina Australia Austria Belgium
Brazil Canada China Demark
Finland France Germany Greece
Ireland Israel Italy Japan
Korea Rep. Kuwait Luxembourg Mexico
Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland
Portugal Russian fed South Africa Spain
Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United kingdom
12. Customs at Arrival   Top
Cameras, computers are major electrical items may need to be declared on arrival.
13. Airport Tax   Top
An airport tax of US$ 20 per person is payable but this is usually included in the price of your airline ticket.
14. Food and Clothing   Top
Injera is a country-wide staple food served with a variety of fasting (vegetarian) and non fasting wots, or sauces. A sour pancake, injera is made with the endogenous grain teff. Deliciously prepared vegetarian dishes, raw meat, cooked meat and fish dishes are also served.Although you can easily find a variety of international and other specialty restaurants in all major towns of Ethiopia.  
It is part of your Ethiopian experience to try local dishes. Traditional dress is commonly seen in the countryside and on festival days. However, in the towns and cities people tend to dress lightly and casually.
15. Drinking water   Top
Most tap water is purified, but it is advisable to use bottled water. Visitors should exercise caution in rural areas.
16. Communications   Top
Telephone is available in most main towns. Fax and internet services are available in the major cities. The IDD code for Ethiopia is +251
17. Souvenir shopping   Top
Some items may require export permits issued by museum authorities in Addis Ababa that must be secured prior to international departure. Clearance procedures can take a much as a day or two to complete. Our company will be happy to help with this process if time allows. Crosses are particularly scrutinized for authenticity as antiquities and caution must be taken when making these purchases, especially at destinations along the northern route from unreliable vendors.
18. Photography   Top
Photographs should not be taken of military on strategic buildings or airports. It is courteous to ask permission before photographing any person or rural homestead. Commonly monetary compensation will be expected for this privilege.
19. Accommodation   Top
A range of hotels is available in Ethiopian, with. Some also offers camping. Hotels in Addis Ababa range from 3 stars to 5 stars and those outside Addis begin at 2 stars.
20. Electricity/ Electrical appliance   Top
Electric supply is 220 volts, 50 cycles Ac. The wall socket accepts two circular – shaped prongs, so an adapter is required. Video camera batteries may be recharged at hotels along the route.
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